Kshitij Singh
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Python to Haskell: A Comprehensive Guide

Introduction to Python and Haskell

Python and Haskell are two popular programming languages, each with its unique features and benefits. Python is known for its simplicity and readability, making it a favorite among beginners and professionals alike. Haskell, on the other hand, is a purely functional programming language that offers strong static typing and lazy evaluation. This article will guide you through the process of converting Python code to Haskell, highlighting key differences and similarities. Why Convert Python to Haskell? Converting Python to Haskell can be beneficial for several reasons. Haskell’s strong type system can help catch errors at compile time, leading to more robust and reliable code. Additionally, Haskell’s lazy evaluation can improve performance by avoiding unnecessary computations. Key Differences Between Python and Haskell Syntax Python uses indentation to define code blocks, while Haskell uses explicit keywords and symbols. For example, a simple function in Python:
def add(a, b):
    return a + b
In Haskell, the same function would be written as:
add :: Int -> Int -> Int
add a b = a + b


Python is dynamically typed, meaning types are determined at runtime. Haskell is statically typed, requiring explicit type declarations. Evaluation Python uses eager evaluation, executing code as soon as it is encountered. Haskell uses lazy evaluation, deferring computation until the result is needed.

Step-by-Step Guide to Converting Python to Haskell

1. Understand the Code

Before converting, ensure you understand the Python code thoroughly. Identify functions, variables, and data structures used. 2. Define Types In Haskell, you need to define types for your functions and variables. This helps catch errors early and makes the code more readable.

3. Rewrite Functions

Convert Python functions to Haskell by rewriting them with Haskell’s syntax and type system. 4. Handle Data Structures Convert Python lists, dictionaries, and other data structures to their Haskell equivalents.

5. Test the Code

After conversion, test the Haskell code to ensure it behaves as expected.

Example Conversion: Python to Haskell

Python Code
def factorial(n):
    if n == 0:
        return 1
        return n * factorial(n-1)

Haskell Code

factorial :: Int -> Int
factorial 0 = 1
factorial n = n * factorial (n-1)

Benefits of Using Haskell

Strong Typing Haskell’s strong typing system helps catch errors at compile time, reducing runtime errors.

Lazy Evaluation

Haskell’s lazy evaluation can improve performance by avoiding unnecessary computations. Pure Functions Haskell’s pure functions make code more predictable and easier to test.


  1. According to a survey by Stack Overflow, Python is the most popular programming language, while Haskell is known for its high average salary among developers.
  2. Studies show that functional programming languages like Haskell can reduce bugs by up to 50% compared to imperative languages like Python.


Think of Python as a versatile Swiss Army knife, great for many tasks but not specialized. Haskell, on the other hand, is like a precision scalpel, designed for specific tasks with high accuracy and reliability.

FAQ Section

What is the main difference between Python and Haskell?

The main difference is that Python is dynamically typed and uses eager evaluation, while Haskell is statically typed and uses lazy evaluation.

Is Haskell faster than Python?

Haskell can be faster than Python for certain tasks due to its lazy evaluation and strong typing, which can optimize performance.

Can I use Haskell for web development?

Yes, Haskell can be used for web development. Frameworks like Yesod and Snap make it possible to build web applications in Haskell.

How hard is it to learn Haskell after Python?

Learning Haskell after Python can be challenging due to the different paradigms, but with practice and understanding of functional programming concepts, it becomes manageable.

  1. Haskell Documentation - Comprehensive guide to Haskell.
  2. Learn You a Haskell for Great Good! - A beginner-friendly tutorial for learning Haskell.
  3. Real World Haskell - Practical guide to using Haskell in real-world applications.

By following this guide, you can successfully convert Python code to Haskell, leveraging the strengths of both languages to create robust and efficient programs.

Free AI based python to haskell code converter Online